Research Review by Stephen Goss, Ph.D.
Stephen Goss’s new article in the November 2011 issue of TILT gives a small sampling of the wealth of research materials that have been developed over the past two decades. For reasons of space, his full Reference List appears here!
It has long been known that behaviours learned or practiced in virtual environments have the potential to impact on offline behaviour and that these carry clear implications for their relevance to counselling, psychotherapy and coaching. This brief article can only give a small sampling of the wealth of research materials that have been developed over the past two decades.
As long ago as the mid-1990s, when contemporary reports still described virtual environments as being in their infancy (McComas et al, 1998), Riva et al (1998) already noted that “Virtual Reality (VR) offers the potential to develop human testing and training environments that allow for the precise control of complex stimulus presentations in which human cognitive and functional performance can be accurately assessed and rehabilitated.”…read the complete article…
Anthony, K. (2000) Counselling in Cyberspace. BACP Counselling Journal. 11(10), pp. 625-627.
Anthony, K., Nagel, D.M. and Goss, S. (2010) The Use of Technology in Mental Health: Applications, Ethics and Practice. Springfield, Il.: CC Thomas.
Anton, R., Opris, D., Dobrean, A., David, D. And Rizzo, A. (2009) Virtual reality in the rehabilitation of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder. Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Rehabilitation 2009 International Conference, June 29-July 2, Haifa, Israel.
Balandin, S. (2011) Participation by adults with lifelong disability: More than a trip to the bowling alley. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 13(3), pp. 207-217.
Botella C. (et al.), (1998) Virtual reality treatment of claustrophobia: a case report, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(2), February, pp. 239-246.
Botella, C. (et al.) (2000) Virtual reality in the treatment of claustrophobic fear: a controlled, multiple-baseline design. Behavior Therapy 31, pp. 583–595.
Botella, C., Breton-Lopez, J., Quero, S., Banos, R. M., Garcia-Palacios, A., Zaragoza, I. and Alcaniz, M. (2011) Treating cockroach phobia using a serious game on a mobile phone and augmented reality exposure: A single case study. Computers in Human Behavior. 27(1), pp. 217-227.
Bouchard, S. (2011) Could virtual reality be effective in treating children with phobias? Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 11(2), pp. 207-213.
Bunning, K., Heath, B. and Minnion, A. (2009) Communication and Empowerment: A Place for Rich and Multiple Media? Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 22(4), pp. 370-379.
Davis, D. (2011) Exploring the media effects of three-dimensional online immersive worlds and how they impact both virtual and real social capital. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 72(1-A), p. 17.
Difede, J. and Hoffman, H.G. (2002) Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for World Trade Center Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report. Cyber Psychology and Behaviour, 5(6), pp. 529-535 Available at http://www.hitl.washington.edu/people/hunter/wtcbrenda.pdf. Accessed 11th October, 2011.
Durkin, K. (2010) Videogames and Young People With Developmental Disorders. Review of General Psychology. 14(2), pp. 122-140.
Gilbert, R., Murphy, N. and Avalos, M.C. (2011) Realism, idealization, and potential negative impact of 3D virtual relationships. Computers in Human Behavior. 27(5), pp. 2039-2046.
Gorini, A., Gaggioli, A., Vigna, C. and Riva, G. (2011) A second life for eHealth: Prospects for the use of 3-D virtual worlds in clinical psychology. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 10(3), pp. 88-98.
Green-Hamann, S., Campbell Eichhorn, K. and Sherblom, J.C. (2011) An exploration of why people participate in Second Life social support groups. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 16(4), pp. 465-491.
Ku, J., Han, K., Lee, H., Jang, H., Kim, K., Park, S., Kim, J., Kim, C., Kim, I. and Kim, S. (2007) VR-based conversation training program for patients with schizophrenia: A preliminary clinical trial. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 10(4), pp. 567-574.
Jarrold, W.L., Solomon, M., Bailenson, J., Gwaltney, M., Ozonoff, S., and Mundy, P.C. (2010) Using virtual reality to provide controlled ecologically valid social interaction paradigms for studying cognitive control and initiating joint attention. Paper presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), Philadelphia, May.
McComas, J., Pivik, J. and Laflamme, M. (1998) Current uses of virtual reality for children with disabilities. In G. Riva, B.K. Wiederhold and E. Molinari (Eds) Virtual Environments in Clinical Psychology and Neuroscience: Methods and Techniques in Advanced Patient-therapist Interaction. Amsterdam, NL: IOP.
Mundy, P. (2010) Virtual reality: An intervention for autism. UC Davis Medical Center. Available at http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/medicalcenter/features/2010-2011/09/20100916_MIND_virtual-autism.html. Accessed 11th October, 2011.
Parsons, T., Bowerly, T., Buckwalter, J., and Rizzo, A. (2007) A controlled clinical comparison of attention performance in children with ADHD in a virtual reality. Child Neuropsychology, 13, pp. 363-381.
Parsons, T. and Rizzo, A. (2008) Affective outcomes of virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety and specific phobias: a metaanalysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 39, pp. 250-61.
Powers, M. and Emmelkamp, P. (2007) Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, pp. 561-9.
Riva, G., Wiederhold, B.K. and Molinari, E. (Eds) (1998) Virtual Environments in Clinical Psychology and Neuroscience: Methods and Techniques in Advanced Patient-therapist Interaction. Amsterdam, NL: IOP.
Rizzo A., Newman B., Parsons T., Reger G., Difede J., Rothbaum B.O., Mclay R.N., Holloway K., Graap K., Newman B., Spitalnick J., Bordnick P., Johnston S. and Gahm G. (2009) Development and Clinical Results from the Virtual Iraq Exposure Therapy Application for PTSD. Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Rehabilitation 2009 International Conference, June 29-July 2, Haifa, Israel.
Segal, R., Bhatia, M. and Drapeau, M. (2011) Therapists’ perception of benefits and costs of using virtual reality treatments. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 14(1-2), pp. 29-34.
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology. 64(2), pp. 489-528.
Sri Kalyanaraman, S., Penn, D., Ivory, J. and Judge, A. (2010) The Virtual Doppelganger: Effects of a Virtual Reality Simulator on Perceptions of Schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 198(6), pp. 437-443.
Standen, P.J. and Cromby, P.J. (1995) Can students with developmental disabilities use Virtual Reality to learn skills which will transfer to the real world? Paper presented at Virtual Reality and Persons with Disabilities Conference, San Francisco, CA.
Stendal, K., Balandin, S. and Molka-Danielsen, J. (2011) Virtual worlds: A new opportunity for people with lifelong disability? Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability. 36(1), pp. 80-83.
Yellowlees, (2006) Education About Hallucinations Using an Internet Virtual Reality System: A Qualitative Survey. Academic Psychiatry. 30, pp. 534-539.
Reger, G.M., Holloway, K.M., Candy, C., Rothbaum, B.O., Difede, J., Rizzo, A.A., Gahm, G. (2011) Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers in a military mental health clinic. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 24(1), pp. 93–96.
This article first appeared in the November 2011 issue of TILT Magazine ~ Therapeutic Innovations in Light of Technology published by the Online Therapy Institute.